Tuesday, April 14, 2015
Centuries of History Are Unearthed in a Quest to Fix a Pipe
LECCE, ITALY: All Luciano Faggiano wanted when he purchased the seemingly unremarkable building at 56 Via Ascanio Grandi was to open a trattoria, a kind of restaurant. He could run the trattoria on the ground floor and live upstairs with his wife and youngest son. The only problem was the toilet. Sewage kept backing up. So Faggiano enlisted his two older sons to help him dig a trench and investigate the underground sewage pipe. He predicted the job would take about a week, and soon after he would open his trattoria. If only. "We found underground corridors and other rooms, so we kept digging," said Faggiano, 60. "Instead of a week, the excavation lasted seven years."
Faggiano's search for a sewage pipe, which began in 2000, became one family's tale of obsession and discovery, of Italian bureaucracy and dirty laundry. He found a subterranean world tracing back to before the birth of Christ: a Messapian tomb, a Roman granary, a Franciscan chapel and even etchings from the Knights Templar. His trattoria instead became a museum, where relics still turn up today. Italy is a slag heap of history, with empires and ancient civilizations built atop one another like layers in a cake. Farmers still unearth Etruscan pottery while plowing their fields. Excavation sites are common in ancient cities such as Rome, where protected underground relics have for years impeded plans to expand the subway system.
Located in the heel of the Italian boot, Lecce was once a critical crossroads in the Mediterranean, coveted by invaders from Greeks to Romans to Ottomans to Normans to Lombards. For centuries, a marble column bearing a statue of Lecce's patron saint, Orontius, dominated the city's central piazza - until historians, in 1901, discovered a Roman amphitheater below, leading to the relocation of the column so that the amphitheater could be excavated.
"The very first layers of Lecce date to the time of Homer, or at least according to legend," said Mario De Marco, a local historian and author, noting that invaders were enticed by the city's strategic location and the prospects for looting. "Each one of these populations came and left a trace."
Severo Martini, a member of the City Council, said archaeological relics turn up on a regular basis - and can present a headache for urban planning. An ongoing project to build a shopping mall had to be redesigned after the discovery of an ancient Roman temple beneath the site of a planned parking lot.
"Whenever you dig a hole," Martini said, "centuries of history come out."
Ask the Faggiano family. Before they started digging, Faggiano's oldest son, Marco, was studying film in Rome. His second son, Andrea, had left home to attend college. The building was seemingly modernized, with clean white walls and a new heating system. "I said, 'Come, I need your help, and it will only be a week,'" Faggiano recalled. But one week quickly passed, as father and sons discovered a false floor that led down to another floor of medieval stone, which led to a tomb of the Messapians, who lived in the region centuries before the birth of Christ. Soon, the family discovered a chamber used to store grain by the ancient Romans, as well as the basement of a Franciscan convent where nuns had once prepared the bodies of the dead.
If this history only later became clear, what was immediately obvious was that locating the pipe would be a much bigger project than Faggiano had anticipated. He did not initially tell his wife about the extent of the work, possibly because he was tying a rope around the chest of his youngest son, Davide, then 12, and lowering him to dig in small, darkened openings. "I made sure to tell him not to tell his mama," he said. His wife, Anna Maria Sano, soon became suspicious. "We had all these dirty clothes, every day," she said. "I didn't understand what was going on."
After watching the Faggiano men haul away debris in the back seat of the family car, neighbors also became suspicious and notified the authorities. Investigators arrived and shut down the excavations, warning Faggiano against operating an unapproved archaeological work site. Faggiano responded that he was just looking for a sewage pipe. A year passed. Finally, Faggiano was allowed to resume his pursuit of the sewage pipe on condition that cultural heritage officials observed the work. Soon, an underground treasure house emerged, as the family uncovered ancient vases, Roman devotional bottles, an ancient ring with Christian symbols, medieval artifacts, hidden frescoes and more.
"The Faggiano house has layers that are representative of almost all of the city's history, from the Messapians to the Romans, from the medieval to the Byzantine time," said Giovanni Giangreco, a cultural heritage official, now retired, involved in overseeing the excavation. City officials, sensing a major find, brought in an archaeologist, even as the Faggianos were left to do the excavation work and bear the costs. Faggiano also engaged in another sort of excavation - extensive research into the eras tiered below him. The two older sons, Marco and Andrea, found their lives interrupted by their father's quest.
"We were kind of forced to do it," said Andrea, now 34, laughing. "I was going to university but then I would go home to excavate. Marco as well." Faggiano still dreamed of a trattoria, even if the project had become his white whale. He supported his family by renting an upstairs floor in the building and from income on other properties. "I was still digging to find my pipe," he said. "Everyday we would find new artifacts."
Years passed. His sons managed to escape, with Andrea moving to London. City archaeologists pushed Faggiano to keep going. His own architect advised that digging deeper would help clear out sludge below the planned bathroom, should he still hope to open his trattoria. He admits he also became obsessed. "At one point, I couldn't take it anymore," he recalled. "I bought cinder blocks and was going to cover it up and pretend it had never happened. "I don't wish it on anyone."
Today, the building is Museum Faggiano, an independent archaeological museum authorized by the Lecce government. Spiral metal stairwells allow visitors to descend through the underground chambers, while sections of glass flooring underscore the building's different historical layers.
His docent, Rosa Anna Romano, is the widow of an amateur speleologist who helped discover the Grotto of Cervi, a cave on the coastline near Lecce that is decorated in Neolithic pictographs. While taking an outdoor bathroom break, the husband had noticed holes in the ground that led to the underground grotto.
"We were brought together by sewage systems," Faggiano joked. Faggiano is now satisfied with his museum, but he has not forgotten about the trattoria. A few years into his excavation, he finally found his sewage pipe. It was, indeed, broken. He has since bought another building and is again planning for a trattoria, assuming it does not need any renovations. He has no plans to lift a shovel. "I still want it," he said of the trattoria. "I'm very stubborn."