Wednesday, 30 December 2015

CAS MUDDE - 2015 and the struggle for Europe’s core

2015 was the year that everyone could see that the European emperor is not (not any longer) wearing clothes. Worse, the emperor didn’t even deny that he was naked! 

Devastating terrorist attacks, months of insecurity about the Eurozone, huge electoral victories for populist parties, an unprecedented refugees crisis... there is no doubt that 2015 was Europe’s annus horribilisBoth the projects of the European Union and of European liberal democracy were challenged in ways we have not seen before. The real question for the coming year(s) is: was 2015 just a freak year, soon to be forgotten, or a transformative year, shaping European politics for years to come?

Whatever the answer to that question will be, 2015 was the year that everyone could see that the European emperor is not (not any longer) wearing clothes. Worse, the emperor didn’t even deny that he was naked!

Sure, European integration and liberal democracy had been challenged before. The 1992 Maastricht Treaty did not only create the foundations of the current European Union, but also gave birth to a slow but steady growing Euroscepticism. Populist parties have been stable features of some European countries since the late 1980s. And counter-terrorism has undermined liberal democracy at least since 9/11.

The months-long negotiations between the Eurozone and the new Greek populist government of Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras was probably the most traumatic period for Europe’s left. Many progressives saw in Tsipras the man to end austerity within Europe, but soon found out that they had both overestimated Tsipras’ competence and underestimated the EU’s stubbornness. As a consequence of the Greek drama, many on the left lost their faith in the European project and in the left populist alternative.

As soon as a Grexit was prevented, Europe was faced by a refugees crisis that saw one million refugees, mostly from Syria and Afghanistan, made their way to Europe. Frustration over weak external borders and no longer existing internal borders led to a strong anti-EU response within Europe’s right. This was worsened by the terrorist attacks in Paris, particularly when irresponsible journalists and politicians claimed a link between the terrorists and the refugees. Across the continent mainstream and populist politicians called for the suspension of the Dublin Regulation and the Schengen Treaty, two absolute pillars of the European Union and of the fundamental values of European integration.

What stands out in both crises is the complete ideological vacuum at the heart of the European political elite… read more:

Jessica Valenti - Feminism isn't just a fad – and that's why so many anti-feminists are angry

The power that feminism currently wields has been described as a “moment” or a “trend” – but it’s much more than that. The last 10 years of feminist work have paved the way for a feminism that’s deeply resonant and embedded in the culture, and it’s not going anywhere anytime soon. And no matter how you cut it, gender justice has been at the forefront of the national conversation and a lot of people’s minds this past year. Some was good: celebrities spoke up against sexism, the military ended the ban on women in combat, battling sexual assault took center stage, and companies from Netflix to Spotify created realistic and generous parental leave policies. 

Some of it was bad: a woman was arrested after desperately trying to end her pregnancy with a coat hanger, a Planned Parenthood was the target of a terrorist shooting and, no matter a woman’s accomplishments, we were reminded that there is always someone ready to insult her with sexism or racism. And some of it was a bit of both, like when Cecile Richards was forced to testify in front of a House committee (but she made them all look ridiculous). Some people were even outraged when Ghostbusters was remade with an all-female cast – but that didn’t stop anything.

Feminism’s prominence is even one reason that Hillary Clinton’s presidential campaign looks very different – and is being responded to very differently – in 2016 than in 2008. Clinton isn’t shying away from taking on gender explicitly any more, and the sexism lobbed at her isn’t being tolerated in the same way, because since 2008 we’ve seen feminism get even more of a foothold in our broader culture.

Rebecca Traister calls this political and cultural shift the “death of white male power”: those opposed to progress on race, gender and LGBT issues are not participating in a full-blown cultural freak-out because feminism is having a “moment”. They’re afraid because they know their world is changing in a way that they can no longer control.

Part of feminism’s growing influence has to do with technology: before the internet, if a woman was interested in feminism, she had to seek it out by finding an organization with which to become involved, subscribing to Ms. magazine or taking a women’s studies class. As feminism has become more entrenched online – first through blogs, now through social media – more people have gained access to activism, information and community. Now women stumble across feminism while they’re on Tumblr or Facebook, reading about everything from politics to pop culture, and have the ability to learn more in just a few clicks.

The intersection of feminism and technology has also meant that sexist politicians can’t slide under the radar the way they used to. In a pre-internet age, we would never have seen the national outrage that spread after Todd Akin said in a local interview that women who are raped don’t get pregnant or the widespread action after Komen for the Cure ended their Planned Parenthood funding.

Technology has also helped democratize the feminist movement itself: the center of feminist organizing and power used to reside mostly within large organizations and well-funded ventures; now the most successful campaigns and most progressive thinking are those sparked by individuals. Feminist hashtags, SlutWalks, videos and memes all have pushed the movement into the future, brought newer, younger and more racially and economically diverse voices that had always been part of the movement to the forefront where they belong, and made getting involved even more accessible.

If there’s still any doubt that feminism’s power is a lasting one, consider the panicked backlash we’ve been witnessing these past few years. As throngs of mostly white male pundits bemoan PC and “victimhood culture”, they continue to be the demographic most likely to overreact when faced with changes they don’t like. If feminism wasn’t at its most powerful there wouldn’t be this kind of frenzied response to it. So though we may continue to see more bad news in the days ahead – like further moves to defund Planned Parenthood or the continued dismissal of rape victims – we can hold on to the fact that we are winning. Not just for the “moment”, but for the foreseeable future.

"America's Ship Is Sinking" Former Bush Official Exposes The Unfixable Corruption Inside The Establishment

"This ship is sinking," retired U.S. Army Colonel Lawrence Wilkerson tells Abby Martin, adding that "today the purpose of US foreign policy is to support the complex that we have created in the national security state that is fueled, funded, and powered by interminable war." The former national security advisor to the Reagan administration, who spent years as an assistant to Secretary of State Colin Powell during both Bush administrations reflects on the sad but honest reflection on what America has become as he exposes the unfixable corruption inside the establishment and the corporate interests driving foreign policy.

"It's never been about altruism, it's about sheer power."

see video:

see also
The man was August Landmesser. He had already been in trouble with the authorities, having been sentenced to two years hard labour for marrying a Jewish woman. 
If some extraterrestrial species were compiling a history of Homo sapiens, they might break their calendar into 2 eras: BNW (before nuclear weapons) & NWE (nuclear weapons era).
Several atomic bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki (“Hibakusha”) presented their testimonies at the conference. US climate scientist Professor Alan Robock...
The Marshall Islands are marking 60 years since the devastating US hydrogen bomb test at Bikini Atoll, with exiled islanders saying they are too fearful to ever go back 
The Marshall Islands and the rest of Micronesia became a United Nations strategic Trust Territory administered by the United States. Among other obligations, the U.S. undertakes.. 

Tyler Durden: Something Strange Is Taking Place In The Middle Of The Atlantic Ocean // Recession, retrenchment, revolution? Impact of low crude prices on oil powers

"The idea is to keep tankers on the water as long as you can and try to find a stronger market."

Early last month, we noted that something very strange was happening off the coast of Galveston, Texas.  As FT reported, "the amount of oil [now] at sea is at least double the levels of earlier this year and is equivalent to more than a day of global oil supply.” In short: the global deflationary crude supply glut is beginning to manifest itself in a flotilla of stationary supertankers, as millions of barrels of oil are simply stuck in the ocean as VLCCs wait to unload.

Ultimately, this led to nearly 40 crude tankers with a combined cargo capacity of 28.4 million barrels waiting to anchor near Galveston. In the latest sign that the world is simply running out of capacity when it comes to coping with an inexorable supply of commodities, three diesel tankers en route from the Gulf to Europe did something rather odd on Wednesday: they stopped, turned around in the middle of the ocean, and headed back the way they came! "At least three 37,000 tonne tankers - Vendome Street, Atlantic Star and Atlantic Titan - have made U-turns in the Atlantic ocean in recent days and are now heading back west," Reuters reported, citing its own tracking data.

The Vendome Street actually made it to within 800 miles of Portgual (so around 75% of the way there) before abruptly turning around. "Ship brokers said a turnaround so late in the journey would come at a cost to the charterer," Reuters notes. The problem: low prices, no storage capacity, and soft demand. Here's Reuters again:

"European diesel prices and refining margins have collapsed in recent days to six-year lows as the market has been overwhelmed by imports from huge refineries in the United States, Russia, Asia and the Middle East. At the same time, unusually mild temperatures in Europe and North America further limited demand for diesel and heating oil, ptting even more pressure on the market. Gasoil stocks, which include diesel and heating oil, in the Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Antwerp storage hub climbed to a fresh record high last week. As of now, it's "unclear if the tankers will discharge their diesel cargoes in the Gulf Coast or await new orders," but what you're seeing is a supply glut so acute that tankers are literally just sailing around with nowhere to go as there are reportedly some 250,000 tonnes of diesel anchored off Europe and the Mediterranean looking for a home. On that note, we'll close with the following quote from a trader who spoke to Reuters: 
"The idea is to keep tankers on the water as long as you can and try to find a stronger market."

The decision to strike a nuclear agreement with Iran, which has more oil reserves than all but four Opec countries, will over the coming months unleash new Iranian oil into the markets. Analysts expect Iran to pump 1m or more barrels a day as a result, so the prospect of the deal has been driving prices down in recent weeks – by about 15% – interrupting a stabilising in the price of oil since the big plunge last year. Even before the Iran news, the clash between the US and Saudi Arabian energy interests had created a volatile new force in the global economy and unprecedented challenges for the two largest producers. The Saudis need high prices to fund their nation but have lost control of the market because of the oil boom in the world’s largest economy. The United States, after years of easy growth, is grappling with painful adjustments –including tens of thousands of layoffs – with the hope of staying viable amid the price collapse... read more:

A glut of oil, the demise of Opec and weakening global demand combined to make 2015 the year of crashing oil prices. The cost of crude fell to levels not seen for 11 years – and the decline may have further to go. There have been four sharp increases in the price of oil in the past four decades – in 1973, 1979, 1990 and 2008 – and each has led to a global recession. By that measure, a lower oil price should be positive for the world economy, with lower fuel costs for consumers and businesses in those countries that import crude outweighing the losses to producing nations.

But the evidence since oil prices started falling from their peak of $115 a barrel in August 2014 has not supported that thesis – or not yet. Oil producers have certainly felt the impact of the lower prices on their growth rates, their trade figures and their public finances butthere has been no surge in consumer spending or business investment elsewhere.

Economists still reckon there will be a boost from a lower oil price particularly if it looks as if the lower cost of crude will be sustained. Dhaval Joshi, an economist at BCA, a London-based research company, said: “A commodity bubble has deflated three times in the past 100 years: the first was after world war one; the second was after the 1980s oil shock; the third is happening right now.” For the big producer countries, this is a major headache, the ramifications of which are only starting to be felt. Oil powers base their spending plans on an assumed crude price. The graphic below shows just how far below water their budgets are... Read more: 

Jonathan Jones - Nikolai Astrup: the lost artist of Norway

Norway’s legendary modern artist who captured his country’s fantastically eerie landscapes is about to be celebrated. And no, it isn’t Edvard MunchIt’s Nikolai Astrup – a legend in his own land, but barely known outside of it. In fact, the Dulwich Picture Gallery, in London, is putting on the first significant show of Astrup’s work outside Norway in the new year. Will it make him as famous as Munch, his contemporary?
Marsh Marigold Night, circa 1915, by Nikolai Astrup
Marsh Marigold Night, c 1915, by Nikolai Astrup. Photograph: 
Dag Fosse/Kode Art Museums of Bergen

It seems suspiciously as if the world only has room for one great Norwegian artist. 
Astrup was born in 1880 and died in 1928, while Munch was born in 1863 and died in 1944. It is impossible to avoid comparing the two, because both are expressionists who take the real world and transfigure it in blazing, lurid colours. They even have a favourite theme in common: the strange light of summer evenings, when the warmth of the far north makes everything look like a fairytale or a hyper-lucid dream.

Astrup’s paintings of people dancing wildly around midsummer bonfires have a lot in common with Munch’s Frieze of Life series. But there is one big difference: Astrup is so much brighter – not just in colour, but also in mood. Just because he is Nordic does not mean he is noir. In fact, this artist – whose style has a rough-hewn, woodcut-like quality (as, of course, do his woodcuts) – is not very “modern” at all. He is a traditional landscape artist with a veneer of expressionist distortion. His true appeal is that he captures the drama, both sublime and pastoral, of the Norwegian landscape.

The gentleness of Astrup’s vision – his love of nature and idyllic images of rural life – is surely what makes him so loved in Norway. But he is now another building block to broaden knowledge about Scandinavian art outside Scandinavia. This exhibition follows on from a fascinating show at the National Gallery last winter of the 19th-century Norwegian landscape painter Peder Balke. Astrup shows that Balke’s romanticism was very much alive in 20th-century Norway.

see more picture-prints:

Todd Woody- Huge methane leak near Los Angeles is spewing tens of thousands of pounds of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere every hour

More than two months after a Southern California natural gas leak began spewing as much as 128,000 pounds of planet-warming methane into the atmosphere every hour, the source of the rupture has been located, officials said Monday. But California regulators and Southern California Gas Company executives say it could take several more months to plug the leak, prompting some environmentalists to compare the blowout to the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

The rupture, which began Oct. 23 at the company’s huge underground natural gas storage facility 20 miles northeast of Los Angeles, has forced the evacuation of some 1,700 homes in nearby Porter Ranch. As of Dec. 22, the leak had emitted an estimated 1.6 million metric tons of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, according to a report from the California Air Resources Board. That’s equivalent to the daily emissions of 7 million cars or all the state’s oil refineries, said scientists at the Environmental Defense Fund. Methane is 80 times as potent a greenhouse gas as carbon dioxide.

Unlike the petroleum that fouled the beaches and waters of the Gulf Coast after the Deepwater Horizon spill, natural gas is invisible. But a video released by the Environmental Defense Fund for the first time graphically shows the extent of the methane pollution. A team from the environmental group Earthworks flew over the leak site on Dec. 17 in a small plane and used a specialized infrared camera to capture images of the methane plume erupting from a hill overlooking the San Fernando Valley like a gusher of black oil.

“What you can’t see is easy to ignore,” Alan Septoff, a spokesperson for Earthworks, said in a statement. “That’s why communities that suffer from pollution from oil and gas development are often dismissed by industry and regulators. Making invisible pollution visible shows the world what people in Porter Ranch have been living with every day for months.”

The leak is a setback for California’s aggressive efforts to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions and serve as a world leader in fighting climate change. But Tim O’Connor, director of the Environmental Defense Fund’s California oil and gas program, said Aliso Canyon underscores a bigger problem.

“Events of this size are rare, but major leakage across the oil and gas supply chain is not,” he said in a statement. “There are plenty of mini–Aliso Canyons that add up to a big climate problem—not just in California but across the country. Regardless of what the future holds for the Aliso Canyon storage field, this is one reason why strong rules are needed to require that oil and gas companies closely monitor for and manage methane leaks.”

Mahesh Peri - Facebook Is Not A Charity, And Nothing Is For Free

No corporate works for charity -- by intention and definition. To explain why Facebook's intentions are fraudulent, I will take the experience of Delhi's healthcare policy.

Delhi decided to provide quality healthcare to all its citizens. They started allotting free land (like spectrum) at a fraction of the cost for setting up hospitals with a pre-condition that they provide free treatment to 15% patients (like "free basics") from economically weaker sections (EWS). However, I have rarely seen inpatients belonging to this category in any top private hospital. Every bed is at a premium and they wouldn't waste it on a patient who isn't paying for it. But the official records will show 15% patients from the EWS category as having been treated. In India, most books are manufactured to suit a regulation!

An ideal situation would have been to collect 15% of the turnover of all these hospitals and use that money to insure the EWS category. That would ensure fair treatment of EWS without discrimination. Everyone becomes a similarly paying customer as money is reimbursed by the insurance company. But then, transparent policies kill corruption and no government will allow that, including AAP.

Back to Facebook. It is a NASDAQ-listed company. Mark Zuckerberg owns only 28% of the company and other investors include corporates, PEs, VCs etc. Analysts will punish FB with impunity the moment they see it swerve from the path of being a profit-making enterprise.

If FB's intentions are indeed honourable, they will use all the resources they intend to invest on free basics to give limited access to all the population, of all the internet. Referencing research done at the Oxford Internet Institute, internet activist Nikhil Pahwa says that though people prefer some internet to none, "they would rather be given the choice of deciding what they want to access, with millions of websites and apps to choose from, for say, three days, over being given unlimited access to a limited selection".

Facebook's endeavour in India is about control. This is about being the gatekeeper. This is about controlling the pipeline and what is channelled through the pipe. To dress it up as charity is a lie. To mislead us is a fraud. FB is a company and they will not be allowed to do anything for "charity" that doesn't have benefits for the company. If indeed it is charity, let them declare it in an SEC filing on NASDAQ, allocate funds for it and face Wall Street.

The government must realise that private enterprises for profit can never be the vehicles that carry the mission of Digital India. The Modi government has made a promise and they need to fulfil it without FB being the vehicle. We can easily afford to fund every data connection, if it uses less than 64KB data (with people using more than that paying for all data). Spectrum, like land, is a national resource not to be frittered away. We don't need free basics. What we need is free internet to connect India, even if it is for a very limited period of time.

Anasuya Basu: The street children who run a newspaper in India

A group of street children are busy in an unusual editorial meeting in a house in the Indian capital, Delhi.

They are bound by a shared passion to bring out Balaknama (Voice of Children), an eight-page quarterly newspaper which focuses on children living and working on the streets. It proudly calls itself the "world's unique newspaper for and by street and working children".

Eighteen-year-old Chandni, the newspaper's editor, joins the animated discussion over the content of the next edition of the paper whose circulation has gone up from 4,000 to 5,500 copies since she took over a year ago. The reporters have either been street children or have worked as child labourers in Delhi and neighbouring states. They were rescued by Chetna, an NGO that works for the rehabilitation of street children. By one estimate, more than 10 million children live on the streets and are forced into work in India.

From working as a street performer with her father to rag picking to support the family, Chandni's life has been a tale of grinding poverty. The NGO's outreach programme enthused her to join a school and also gave her a modest stipend to keep her from going back to rag picking. It also trained her as a reporter. "I am very proud of editing this paper because it's one of its kind in India. Children whose childhood have been robbed, have gone hungry, begged, been abused and forced to work write about other children who are going through similar tribulations," says Chandni. "It's not only cathartic but also gives each one of us a sense of purpose. We can only become better  from here."

She manages a bureau of 14 reporters who cover Delhi and neighbouring states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Most reporters narrate their copies to colleagues in the Delhi office on the phone because they often have no access to e-mail or fax. Chandni conducts two editorial meets every month to keep a sharp eye on the content. The broadsheet is priced at two rupees (30 cents) and is financed and published by Chetna. But it has been struggling to find advertisers and has not received any funding from the government.

Limited resources
Shanno, 19, is a fifth-grade school dropout. Working long hours and putting up with a "drunk father" was Shanno's life story. Today she is studying for a degree in social work and hopes to have a career as a social activist. She also trains other reporters at the newspaper. "We did a sample survey of street and working children in Delhi in November and managed to track down 1,320 children living on the streets and working as labourers," she says. "We wanted to tell the police and the government that a proper count of street children was possible. If we can do it with limited resources, so can they when they have all the manpower and resources available to them."

"There's been talk of a survey of street children to be conducted by the Delhi government and also the police but nothing has come of it so far," she adds. Shambhu, who also works at the newspaper, says he faced a lot of opposition and endured threats while doing the survey. "We had to face a lot of opposition and even threats when we went to talk to children working in restaurants and hotels because their employers were belligerent. But we firmly told them that we will call the child helpline number if they did not allow us talk to the children," he says.

Reaching out to children stuck in private homes, restaurants and factories gave a sense of purpose to 15-year-old Chandni (junior). She echoes the pain and horror of many nameless children in the stories that she files for the paper. Chandni (junior) is slated to take over as the next editor of the newspaper. "I want to increase the reach of our newspaper and make it a profit making venture. It's the voice of all of us who have survived hardships on the streets, in other people's homes and sweat shops and can now speak for many others who continue to struggle. Their silence must be heard," she says.

Wednesday, 23 December 2015

Julia Kristava: Interpreting radical evil

The war against radical evil requires us to take Nietzsche's project seriously: « Ask a big question rather than deliver a grand statement: » This means: instead of focusing on God, look to ideals, and their absence in order to make them known and reassessed

NB: As a reminder that love can persist in the midst of evil, here is a forgotten piece of history: The Christmas truce, 1914 - Steven Johns

The adolescent is a believer
The child king that lies dormant inside of all of us, according to Freud in his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905), would be a "laboratory scientist”:  all his senses awakened, he seeks to discover where babies come from. This insatiable curiosity is so attractive that it overshadows adolescent characteristics: precisely because there is no adolescent without the need to believe.

The adolescent is not a researcher in a laboratory, he is a believer. We all are adolescents when we are passionate about the absolute. Freud was not concerned with adolescence because he was, himself, the greatest non-believer, the most irreligious person that has ever existed. Within the meaning of faith, believing implies a passion for object relations: faith desires everything, it is potentially fundamentalist, as is the adolescent. Adam and Eve, Romeo and Juliet are the coat of arms of adolescence; we are all adolescents when we are in love.

However, since our impulses and desires are ambivalent and sadomasochistic, this belief that the Ideal Object exists is continuously threatened, if not frustrated and circumvented. So the passion in search of an object reverses into punishment and self-punishment. The trajectory of this reversal during adolescence is: disappointment-depression-suicide; when it does not take a more regressive and somatic form i.e. the anorexia; or, in a certain political context: the destructive thrust of self-with-the-other, which I call the kamikaze syndrome. Because the adolescent believes in the relation with the object, he experiences the impossibility of this relation as dreadful.

Transference meets the need to believe
Sharing the idealism syndrome specific to the adolescent, the psychoanalyst has a chance to lift resistance and to bring the adolescent to an analytical process where adolescence shows itself as restive. The need for religion, relayed throughout the Twentieth century by ideological enthusiasm, proposed and still proposes to authenticate the idealism syndrome: initiation rites, fasts and mortifications. It was also authenticated in the arts: ever since its origins in the Renaissance, the novel has chronicled initiatory adventures of adolescent characters.

Of course, adolescent discontent worries modern society:  we create "adolescent centers"; we developed adolescent psychiatry following the child psychiatry model. But secular morality seems unprepared to face the "return of religion", whether in the form of -"spiritual crafts" that one manufactures, according to his times and his tastes, by borrowing, via Internet, religious fragments, here and there; or in - bastardized forms (sects); or,  even more seriously, in the form of - fundamentalism (encouraging a great explosion of the death drive in the name of Ideal).

The Radicalized make their way back to Paris
The onslaught of jihadist horror in Paris suddenly shows us that, in the future, the religious treatment of the need to believe is itself discredited, because it does not fulfill the aspiration of this paradoxical believer to achieve paradise. This nihilistic believer, necessarily nihilistic because pathetically idealist, is the disintegrated adolescent, dissocialized in the ruthless global migration.

Gangster-type radicalized fundamentalism demonstrates a radical phase of nihilism, perhaps more radical than ever, looming below the "clash of religions". This phase captures in depth the springs of civilizations, highlighting the destruction of the pre-religious "need to believe", this universal constituent of psychic life with and for the other, which is present in adolescence as the idealism disorder.

Psychoanalysis concerns itself with this profound disorganization of the person – leading to desubjectivation (« "I" does not exist », which can be understood as « nothing but a desintricated drive ready for anything ») and the disorganization of the link to the other – to the point of deobjectalization (« the other has no meaning or value »), where only the death drive, the malice of evil, triumphs.

Radical evil
What is radical evil that Kant and Arendt once denounced? It is the declaration- and the realization—of the superfluity of human beings: their mechanical destructiveness.

Is radical evil without reason? In some ways, this is the claim of mysticism and literature. The political pact cannot stop there. With psychoanalytic experience, I am not satisfied only to rebel. In order to refine the transference-countertransference interpretation, I am looking for the extreme evil logic. We discover that following the family's failure and social disintegration, some people, especially adolescents, succumb to the idealism disorder: they literally explode, unable to distinguish between right and wrong, inside and outside, subject and object. Between the two impulses within us, that of life and that of death, it is the death drive that resolves psychic life and reduces it to blind destructiveness: in fine self-destruction, accompanied by a senseless pleasure, or inside the vacuum of apathy.

From this diagnosis grows the audacity of psychoanalytic accompaniment that wants to be more than a "comprehensive moralism". The accompaniment of adolescents experiencing radicalization places the analyst at the unsustainable junction where this disubjectivation/ deobjectalisation is exercised and threatens, but also may initiate a restructuring. That is our challenge, following the discovery of the death drive and the malignant potential of the psychic apparatus which is revealed in the idealism disorders, abolishing the need to believe and the desire to know, so that the human being, unable to invest and to establish links, deprived of "self" and devoid of the sense of the other, wanders in a "world" that is lacking, in a non-world, with no "good" or  "evil "nor any" value ".

Is it possible to push analytical listening to the borders of human nature, and still practice psychoanalysis in these conditions?

Reassessing "our values"
The Republic is facing a historic challenge: is it capable of facing this crisis of the need to believe and desire to know that the cover of religion no longer retains, and which touches the foundation of the link between humans? The anxiety that freezes the country in this time of carnage, against the backdrop of economic and social crisis, expresses our uncertainty in the face of this colossal challenge. Are we able to mobilize all means, police and economies, without forgetting those obtained by the knowledge of psyche? 

Are we able to address this poignant idealism disorder that is sweeping over us with the atrocity of the radicalized, with the delicacy of necessary listening, with the appropriate education and with the necessary generosity? Thus interpreted, the barbarism of the jihadists in the grip of the malignancy of evil, calls into question the "values" of secularism and challenges the capacity of psychoanalysis to grapple with the new discomforts of globalization.

The war against radical evil requires us to take Nietzsche's project seriously: « Ask a big question rather than deliver a grand statement: » This means: instead of focusing on God, look to ideals, and their absence in order to make them known and reassessed, problematized, endlessly rethought. To interpret horror, support those who are tempted by radical evil, rather than focusing on the deadly acts and severity that the killers deserve. In order not to bow-down before evil, or extreme evil, we must patiently continue researching, certainly not from some unknown utopian and safe balance, but from this fragile point which Pascal defines as "perpetual motion."  He wrote: « He who found the secret to rejoicing in  goodness without getting angry at evil, would have found the point. It is perpetual motion. » And what if the vision we lack today is precisely the "point", this "perpetual motion", towards the "secret of rejoicing goodness without getting angry at evil”? ... This is the particular inner experience that barbarians ignore, but which transference enables us to mobilise.

Julia Kristeva

(article courtesy the website of The International Psychoanalytical Association)

see also

Liu Qin - China fails to regulate antibiotic pollution

International bodies have recently called for antibiotic manufacturers to make their supply chains public, and for antibiotics manufacturers to face the same scrutiny as other polluting industries.

While experts from the Chinese Academy of Science told chinadialogue that new rules on antibiotic pollution are unlikely to be passed in the near future, trials that monitor antibiotic levels in regions where the problem is acute are possible.

Worldwide, there is currently a growing crisis of resistance to antibiotics. According to the World Health Organisation, antimicrobial resistance or AMR as it is known, poses an “increasingly serious threat to global public health”, affecting everyone, regardless of age or nationality. The WHO has called for immediate action – and they are not alone.

Sascha Marschang, a policy coordinator at the European Public Health Association, a healthcare non-profit organisation, said: “The EU must take responsibility and work to find effective solutions in policy and international law to this exceedingly frightening, global menace. Otherwise, we are facing a truly catastrophic scenario and a return to the dark ages of medicine where simple operations and infections are again life-threatening.”

Growing resistance: In 2012, there was a gradual increase in resistance to HIV drugs, albeit not reaching critical levels, reported the WHO. In 2013, approximately 480,000 new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis were detected, while extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis was been identified in 100 countries. Since then, further increases in resistance to first-line treatment drugs have been registered.

China is the world’s biggest maker and exporter of antibiotics. In response, international bodies have called on China to better manage this sector, and for the international community to more better regulate antibiotic makers.

During the first World Antibiotic Awareness Week in November, the European Public Health Association and corporate watchdog SumOfUs, held a joint event in Brussels calling for international policy-makers to introduce new legislation and force antibiotic manufacturers to make their supply chains public. The overall aim was to reduce the volume of antibiotics released into the environment in waste water from manufacturing, which is worsening the resistance crisis.

Resistance to antibiotics is on the rise for three reasons: incorrect use by humans, misuse in intensive agriculture, and through pollution resulting from manufacturing. Chinese experts from a leading science academy told chinadialogue that the first two of these three issues should be the focus of efforts to tackle antibiotic resistance.

International groups say that this is already happening in the first two cases. However, efforts to address antibiotic pollution remain negligible.

A recent report from SumOfUs reccomended that environmental standards should be applied to existing production methods, such as the Good Manufacturing Practice Framework rules. “This is a critical, yet still missing, part of the puzzle in the global strategy to combat AMR,” it said.

New tech: In order to reform, the report suggested that antibiotic makers should adopt cleaner technology, such as using biological manufacturing methods rather than chemical synthesis, to reduce energy use and pollution; and eliminate toxic materials and other pollutants from the manufacturing process. Second, companies should adopt strict environmental standards for the disposal, transportation, storage, reuse and management of solid waste and waste water and gases.

It is also recommended that the government monitors antibiotic levels in surface water and in soil in manufacturing areas; and bolster research into the impact of antibiotics om the environment and on human resistance.

Developing nations have fewer environmental sanctions for businesses, and so have become home to polluting pharmaceutical firms. This means that they are particularly at risk. China makes 90% of the world’s ingredients for antibiotic manufacturing, a process that produces pollution. Despite being the world’s biggest maker of antibiotics, China has no environmental standards for regulating antibiotic pollution.

Hebei province in northern China is a centre for antibiotics manufacturing, producing 30% of the country’s antibiotic exports. One environmental group told chinadialogue that while driving through Shijiazhuang Luancheng Industrial Zone in October, they encountered a powerful medicinal smell, even though the car windows were closed. However, the residents said that thanks to efforts to combat smog, high-level officials had visited the site and pollution had improved.

Noxious fumes: In late 2014, China Central Television, a state media outlet, reported on antibiotic manufacturers faking data and dumping untreated effluent in rivers. It also reported complaints of noxious fumes and high incidences of cancer from residents who live near pharmaceutical factories.

The programme reported that Shandong Lukang Pharmaceuticals had excessive levels of antibiotics waste water. An environmental protection employee with the company told CCTV that waste water was treated to remove antibiotics, but the investigation found otherwise. The pollution map maintained by the Institute of Public and Environmental Affairs lists almost 3,000 incidences of pollution by pharmaceutical manufacturers, including those making antibiotics.

However, the IPE has not examined antibiotic pollution, specifically. “Antibiotics are not [considered] pollution,” said Ma Jun, director of the IPE. While resistance is recognised as a problem, it is unknown whether or not these chemicals cause direct harm to public health or to the environment.

Ying Guangguo, a researcher with the Chinese Academy of Science disagrees. He believes antibiotics in the environment are a form of harmful pollution, just one that is not yet taken seriously by officials. Ying has spent 10 years compiling a map of antibiotic pollution in China. He claims this form of pollution comes mainly from livestock rearing, rather than manufacturing.

The CAS study tested for 36 common antibiotics. Up to 538,000 tonnes of these are released into the environment every year, 46% into water and 54% into the soil. The problem is worse in the Hai and Pearl watersheds, where levels reach an average of 79.3 kg per square kilometre. Annual discharges of antibiotics are highest in Dongting Lake, at 3,440 tonnes. They are very high in the Yellow, Huai and Yangtze rivers, all of which see discharges of over 3,000 tonnes. The problem is less acute in the Bei River and Pearl River Delta.

Monitoring procedures: CCTV’s report last year said that antibiotics had been found in the domestic water supply in Nanjing city and Anhui province. This worried locals, who wanted to know why levels of antibiotics aren’t included in China’s standards for the domestic water supply. Also, the current Standards for Environmental Quality of Surface Water includes 109 items for monitoring, but nothing about antibiotics.

Ying told chinadialogue that there’s no need to monitor the domestic water supply for antibiotics, as levels are too low. However, he said monitoring of surface water for antibiotics could be considered.

But Zhang Gan, deputy head of the CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, said: “Given China’s current circumstances, it’s absolutely impossible to monitor antibiotics in surface water.” He explained that better oversight is welcome, but it is currently unrealistic as the cost of equipment and staff would be too high, and no other country in the world does this. Furthermore, the actual amounts of antibiotics in the environment are tiny, he said: “It’s more important to look at wider targets. If existing standards are properly enforced, antibiotic pollution will fall as well.”

Gan did say that trials of antibiotic monitoring could be started at sources of pollution, such as manufacturers and livestock farms, but that only big cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou had the resources to carry out such strict monitoring at this time. But as China’s cities grower richer, so too will their capacity to regulate the chemical antibiotics in their ecosystems.
This article was first published by

Tuesday, 22 December 2015

Patrick Kingsley - Lesbos is swept by wave of compassion as refugees continue to arrive by sea // 'Love has no religion': priests and pastors reach out to refugees

On Tuesday, the number of asylum seekers to reach Europe this year passed 1 million. Nearly half of them did so via the beaches of this Greek island

As an institution, the Greek Orthodox church is often considered a bastion of nationalism and conservatism. Some of its priests have even suggested Muslim migrants pose a danger to Greece. But other churchmen have taken the same view as Dimou, who died of lung cancer on 2 September this year, and have become actively involved in efforts to help refugees and migrants... “Just recently three women arrived at the village – two of them were pregnant. All three had lost contact with their husbands and their children. We took action and reunited the families,” he said. “It was then that one of the husbands stood in front of me and kissed me. Love has no religion. Saint Paul writes in the Epistle to the Corinthians: ‘If I speak in the tongues of men or of angels, but do not have love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal’.” (scroll down to 'Love has no religion')

Ummah does not mean the global community of Muslims; it means the global community of the compassionate, religion and race no bar - Ziauddin Sardar

We shouldn't get used to seeing photos of children dead at sea

In the hills high above the north coast of Lesbos, an incongruous mass of orange surges for hundreds of metres across a craggy plateau. It could be the crater of a seething volcano. But this is not lava. On Tuesday, the number of asylum seekers to reach Europe this year passed 1 million. Nearly half of them did so via the beaches of this Greek island – and the eerie hilltop is where the residents of Lesbos have piled hundreds of thousands of their discarded orange lifejackets. Elsewhere, the islanders are building a second graveyard to house the bodies of the drowned. This silent swath of orange – 3.7 metres (1 ft) tall in places, and rolling like the sea – is just as apt a tombstone for the scale and tragedy of the European refugee crisis.
Emilia Kavisi, who has helped the volunteers since the start of the crisis
 Emilia Kavisi, who has helped the volunteers since the start of the crisis. 
Photograph: Sean Smith for the Guardian

Here in the north of Lesbos, where villagers with a telescope can see the refugees embarking from the Turkish shores in the distance, people nevertheless need no monument to be reminded of the human cost. “We are so close to Turkey,” says 83-year-old Emilia Kavisi, a former olive-picker whose house sits metres from the sea. “We can hear the noises and the screams at night.”

Mukul Kesavan - Hedgehogs and foxes: Why the BJP won't change

As we approach the second commemoration of Good Governance Day, there's a nice irony to the fact that this proudly 'Hindu' regime set out so resolutely last year to secularize Christmas.

That a Bharatiya Janata Party-led government should publicly try to colonize Christmas wasn't surprising; what caught some commentators out was the speed with which the BJP and its affiliates began to ride their ideological hobby-horses. Within six months of coming to power, Narendra Modi's ministers, his members of parliament and the foot soldiers of the sangh parivar had begun performing adaptations of their greatest hits with the practised skill of a touring repertory company.

There were the clever ghar wapsi skits that offered a solution to the pressing problem of India becoming a Hindu-minority nation. Mohan Bhagwat gave us an insight into inclusiveness, Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh-style, when he declared that Christians and Muslims were apna maal, literally 'our material'. The venerable sanghi idea that Hindus are India's natural citizens while the others need to be naturalized, was memorably summarized by Sadhvi Niranjan Jyoti in her pithy distinction between Ramzadas and har****das. 
Even the RSS's ancient hostility to Mahatma Gandhi was reheated and served up by Sakshi Maharaj when he suggested that Nathuram Godse belonged in India's nationalist pantheon. In the skirmishes in Trilokpuri, BJP leaders dabbled in 'controlled polarization'. And then, towards the end of the year came Good Governance Day, the notional nativity of Jesus Christ rebranded as the actual birthday celebrations of Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Madan Mohan Malaviya. In this, if nothing else, the new regime rejected myth for history.

Symbolic though it was, Good Governance Day was a turning point in the career of Modi's government. It marked the moment when it became clear that the prime minister and his party were going to run the government from the further reaches of the majoritarian Right. Or to put it another way, it was the point when it became hard for Modi's 'centrist', 'reformist', even 'liberal' supporters to plausibly argue that the Hindu strongman of Gujarat had mutated into an inclusive prime minister.

It was the gratuitousness of the provocation that made it clear that the BJP couldn't help itself. Putting minorities in their place wasn't an optional extra for the BJP; it was its reason for being. A rational government of the centre-Right, one committed to getting its legislative agenda on the economy passed as smoothly as possible, given its weakness in the Upper House, might have deferred its culture war provocations till the heavy lifting of real governance was done. A government which really believed that it had been elected by a newly 'aspirational' India might have focused on meeting its - presumably material - aspirations. The trouble was that this vision of the BJP as the Indian equivalent of Germany's Christian Democrats and Modi as our answer to Angela Merkel was a fiction that lived only in the minds of op-ed commentators.

The BJP won an absolute majority in Parliament last year because a third of India's electorate endorsed Modi and everything that he stood for. It wasn't as if the independent swing voter held her nose delicately and decided I'll vote for his economic dynamism despite the pogrom of 2002. Much more likely she saw his summary way with Muslims as a sign of the same decisiveness that made Vibrant Gujarat possible. Modi's great triumph in 2014 was that he was elected on his own terms without conceding an inch of ground to his critics. He understood this mandate rather better than his anglophone enablers did.

This is why, despite the fiasco of Good Governance Day, the BJP continued on its majoritarian way. It is the reason why the lynching at Dadri saw BJP ministers and chief ministers and members of parliament say vile and stupid things about a tragedy that occurred on another party's watch for which the BJP would, in the normal course, have borne no responsibility. And yet responsible members of the party and the government courted infamy. They couldn't help themselves; it's who they were. It was also what they thought their voters wanted. It's why the prime minister remained silent.

Isaiah Berlin made a famous distinction between writers. Some writers were possessed by a single idea; they were hedgehogs. Others knew many things and refused to reduce the world to a single idea. These were foxes. The same distinction is useful for classifying political parties. The BJP knows one thing: India is a Hindu rashtra in the making and its entire being is committed to the realization of that ideal. The Congress (before it became a debased dynastic rump) was a fox; it believed that India was various and flirted with a range of ideas to encompass that plurality.

One reason why journalists and writers are reluctant to abandon the idea that Modi's general election victory was down to 'aspiration' rather than his charisma as a Hindu strongman is that letting go of aspiration seems to imply that a plurality of India's voters voted for a majoritarian agenda. But the two aren't irreconcilable; it's possible to want a better life for yourself without worrying too much about the fate of Muslims or Christians. The BJP understands this; there's a reason why there were no Muslim MPs in the BJP's absolute majority.

We use euphemisms and half-truths to understand electoral victories because it seems monstrous to imply that a large section of an electorate might vote out of prejudice. But it shouldn't be hard to grasp that in times of serious turbulence, discontent with the ruling dispensation is more easily alloyed with prejudice. We see this happening in the Republican primaries in the United States of America where Donald Trump has refashioned himself into a lightning rod for bigotry.

We see it happening in France where the National Front lost the recent regional elections only because parties of the Left supported parties of the centre-Right to keep out the extreme Right. If Marine Le Pen were to win the next French presidential election, France will have its Modi moment. The margin will define the mainstream and commentators will explain to us at some considerable length why this represented disillusion with elites who couldn't control borders, couldn't manage the economy and who bent over backwards to appease aliens who weren't socialized into being French. The fact that Le Pen's stock in trade used to be racism and bigotry will recede, discreetly, into the background.

The BJP, with Modi or without, is a hedgehog. The goal of a Hindu rashtra is its reason for being, the master-idea that sustains it. The BJP's cadres, its rank and file, agitated for Modi's elevation as the party's prime minister designate in 2013 not because they were interested in his economic blueprints but because they believed he was the One who embodied the majoritarian ideal in a way that might galvanize the electorate. They were right. In what world would a majoritarian party, led by a polarizing leader, back away from its core beliefs after they were endorsed by the electorate in a general election?

In May 2014, the BJP led by Narendra Modi thought, with some justification, that its time had come. The absolute majority that this hedgehog had worked tirelessly for had arrived. No longer was it constrained by unruly coalitions; it could be itself. Being itself meant ghar wapsi and har****das and Godse and Good Governance Day and Amit Shah, the grotesque equivocations over Dadri and Modi's sly insinuations about the Hindu poor losing their reservations to members of 'another community'.

A year ago, Good Governance Day announced that majoritarianism in action was the BJP's Plan A. This was the BJP in all-conquering mode, before the rout in Delhi. After that defeat people wondered if the BJP would recalibrate and what that Plan B might look like. On the road to Bihar that happened to run through Dadri, it turned out that there was no Plan B. Bihar was treated to variations on cow-slaughter and Muslim-lovers and the BJP's unwavering commitment to its People.

The BJP was routed again but the party knows that there's a constituency for its big idea. In good times and in bad, Hindu rashtra is the only idea it will ever broadcast. Narendra Modi will sideline majoritarianism at the same time as Marine Le Pen deletes racism from the ideological repertoire of the National Front... namely never. Hedgehogs don't retire their defining ideas. They live by them.

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